Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; pelagic; depth range 50 - ? m (Ref. 34290). Tropical; 22°C - 26°C (Ref. 13614); 2°N - 7°S
Africa: known from the Lake Victoria drainage, including Lake Kyoga, Lake Nabugabo and the Victoria Nile (Ref. 4903).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 3.8, range 4 - 4.9 cm
Max length : 8.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 52331); max. reported age: 3.00 years (Ref. 126001)
soft rays: 16 - 19. Diagnosis: body strongly compressed (Ref. 34290), body height 4.25-4.75 times in body length, caudal peduncle twice as height as long (Ref. 42448). Lower jaw slightly prominent (Ref. 55057). Mouth large, terminal and rather oblique, without lips or circumoral barbels (Ref. 34290), extending to below anterior border of eye (Ref. 1872, 2988, 31439). Cheek largely covered by thin suborbital bones (Ref. 2988, 31439, 34290). Branchiospines rather short but not rudimentary; pharyngeal teeth conical (Ref. 55057). Gill rakers moderately long (Ref. 2988, 31439), 16 on (lower part of) first branchial arch (Ref. 2988, 4903, 31439). Scales moderately large, 42-56 on lateral line (Ref. 34290). Lateral line descending from about upper part of gill opening to just before ventral-fin origin (Ref. 42005, 55057), more or less following the ventral body profile from ventral fin to caudal peduncle (Ref. 34290, 55057). Dorsal fin situated almost entirely above anal fin (Ref. 34290). Anal-fin base about twice as long as dorsal-fin base (Ref. 4967). 12-17 branched anal-fin rays (Ref. 4903, 34290). Pectoral fin not reaching pelvic fin (Ref. 2988, 4967, 31439, 55057). Body silver with an overall nacreous sheen (Ref. 4903, 34290), yellowish brown above (Ref. 31439). Caudal fin yellow (Ref. 2988¸4903, 31439, 34290), other fins colourless (Ref. 4903, 34290), white or greyish (Ref. 2988, 31439). Dead specimens with a distinct mid-lateral stripe (Ref. 4903, 34290), stripe silver in life (Ref. 4967).
Highly adapted to pelagic life (Ref. 12526). Found inshore and offshore (Ref. 34290). Known from the surface of inshore and coastal waters; some records from surface waters over great depth (Ref. 4903, 34291). Adults stay near the bottom during the day and near the surface at night (Ref. 34291). Juvenile fish migrate away from the shore after spending their larval stage in shallow areas (Ref. 33811). In Lake Kyoga occurring in open water away from water-lily swamps; in Victoria Nile caught in turbulent regions (Ref. 4903). Feed on zooplankton and surface insects (Ref. 4903, 12526, 34291) and eaten by birds and various fish species, mainly siluroids including Schilbe mystus, Clarias gariepinus, Bagrus docmak (Ref. 12526, 52061) and Synodontis victoriae (Ref. 125996). Mature individuals spawn in the lake and produce floating eggs (Ref. 52061). Sensitive to low oxygen conditions (Ref. 125996).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Lévêque, C. and J. Daget, 1984. Cyprinidae. p. 217-342. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ORSTOM, Paris and MRAC, Tervuren. Vol. 1. (Ref. 2801)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial; bait: usually
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00676 (0.00336 - 0.01361), b=3.05 (2.87 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.49 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.9-1.0).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (14 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 592 [309, 1,211] mg/100g; Iron = 3.53 [1.92, 6.55] mg/100g; Protein = 18.3 [17.1, 19.5] %; Omega3 = 0.752 [0.283, 2.013] g/100g; Selenium = 39.6 [14.1, 130.0] μg/100g; VitaminA = 85.2 [29.4, 254.1] μg/100g; Zinc = 2.78 [1.83, 4.28] mg/100g (wet weight);