Teleostei (teleosts) > Cypriniformes
(Carps) > Leuciscidae
(Minnows) > Pogonichthyinae
Etymology: episcopa: Named after Dione, the mother of Venus; episcopa meaning bishop or pope, alluding to John Pope, who led party that collected type (Ref. 79012).
More on author: Girard.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 7.4 - 8.1; dH range: 7 - 20. Subtropical; 23°C - 25°C (Ref. 12468); 34°N - 25°N
North America: Rio Grande drainage above Devils River in Texas, New Mexico and Mexico.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 7.7 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 86798); common length : 5.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193)
Inhabits rocky pools, sometimes runs, of headwaters, creeks, and small rivers. Often occurs among filamentous algae (Ref. 86798). Feeds mainly on algae and other plants (Ref. 5723).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 2011. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Boston : Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 663p. (Ref. 86798)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00501 (0.00237 - 0.01060), b=3.13 (2.95 - 3.31), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.00 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).