Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Kurtiformes
(Nurseryfishes, cardinalfishes.) > Apogonidae
(Cardinalfishes) > Apogoninae
Etymology: Apogon: Greek, a = without + Greek pogon = chin, beard (Ref. 45335). More on author: Castelnau.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 13121), usually 0 - 35 m (Ref. 40849). Tropical; - 24°S
Southwest Atlantic and Eastern Central Atlantic: endemic to Brazil, including Fernando de Noronha Archipelago and St. Paul's Rocks.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 10.1 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 13121)
Inhabits rock pools but also found to depths of at least 50 m. Hides in holes and crevices during the day (Ref. 13121). Feeds on plankton (Ref. 40849).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Mouthbrooders (Ref. 240). Distinct pairing during courtship and spawning (Ref. 205).
Lubbock, R. and A. Edwards, 1981. The fishes of Saint Paul's Rocks. J. Fish Biol. 18(2):135-157. (Ref. 13121)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.7 - 28, mean 27 °C (based on 366 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01549 (0.00726 - 0.03306), b=3.07 (2.89 - 3.25), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.45 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (12 of 100) .