Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Anguilliformes
(Eels and morays) > Ophichthidae
(Snake eels) > Ophichthinae
Etymology: Ophichthus: Greek, ophis = serpent + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335); zophochir: Name from Greek zophochi meaning dark hand, referring to the dusky pectoral fin (Ref. 4525). More on authors: Jordan & Gilbert.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 1 - 110 m (Ref. 31243). Subtropical
Eastern Pacific: Eureka in northern California, USA to Peru; uncommon in north of Baja California, Mexico.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 98.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 96339); common length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Inhabits rocky and sandy areas. A burrowing species. Feeds on clams and fish (Ref. 4525).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 17.6 - 28.6, mean 23.4 °C (based on 122 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00126 (0.00053 - 0.00297), b=2.92 (2.72 - 3.12), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.60 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 3.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.30).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (45 of 100) .