Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 170 m (Ref. 6871), usually 0 - 40 m (Ref. 6871). Temperate; 37°S - 45°S, 140°E - 150°E (Ref. 114953)
Eastern Indian Ocean to southwest Pacific: endemic to Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 55.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 114953)
Occur on soft bottoms of the continental shelf (Ref. 7300, 75154). Feed on benthic fishes and crustaceans (Ref. 6871). Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 4.4-6.3 cm long and 3.2-3.8 wide (Ref. 41308). Males reaches maturity at ca. 39 cm TL, females at ca. 42 cm TL; young hatch at ca. 10 cm TL (Ref. 114953).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 13.3 - 16.5, mean 15.2 °C (based on 70 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00309 (0.00145 - 0.00660), b=3.22 (3.04 - 3.40), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.67 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 21.4 [2.8, 126.0] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.279 [0.049, 1.079] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.1 [14.1, 18.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.776 [0.338, 1.826] g/100g ; Selenium = 14.3 [3.0, 54.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 9.59 [2.20, 40.68] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.441 [0.116, 1.637] mg/100g (wet weight);