Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 5.5 - 7.5; dH range: ? - 25; potamodromous (Ref. 51243). Tropical; 22°C - 28°C (Ref. 2060); 8°N - 8°S, 72°W - 50°W
South America: upper Amazon River and French Guiana coastal basins.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 22.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 36801)
Adults occur in ponds. Favored food fish. They are strict herbivores which feed on plant debris, leaves and algae (Ref. 12225) but are reported as omnivores in Ref. 2060. The males are mature at 18 cm and the females at 22 cm (Ref. 12225). Distinct pairs breed on densely grown weedy places (Ref. 205). In the Amazon, the species of this genus are gregarious and undergo migration (Ref. 12225).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairs breed on densely grown weedy places (Ref. 205).
Garavello, J.C. and H.A. Britski, 2003. Anostomidae (Headstanders). p. 71-84. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil. (Ref. 36801)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial