Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Salmoniformes
(Salmons) > Salmonidae
(Salmonids) > Coregoninae
Etymology: Coregonus: Greek, kore = pupils of the eye + Greek, gonia = angle (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; brackish; demersal; pH range: 7.0 - 7.5; dH range: 20 - ?; anadromous (Ref. 51243). Temperate; 4°C - 16°C (Ref. 2059); 73°N - 40°N
Europe: Native to Lake Bourget (France) and Geneva (Switzerland, France). Population of Lake Aiguebelette (France) apparently introduced, but a 'lavaret' had already been recorded from there in the 17th century (Ref. 59043). Other authors assume it to be a superspecies occurring in Great Britain and Alpine areas of Central Europe. Has been stocked into many other places in Europe outside its native range. There are many parallel and wrong scientific names for this species in use because of the problems in classifying the genus Coregonus (Ref. 7495). Appendix III of the Bern Convention (protected fauna). Asia: introduced to Iran (Ref. 39702).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 27.1, range 40 - ? cm
Max length : 73.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); max. published weight: 10.0 kg (Ref. 35388)
Gregarious lacustrine forms (Ref. 2163) and anadromous estuarine forms, rarely in full saltwater. Feeds on planktonic crustaceans, or larger benthic crustaceans in brackish water. Movement in water column as a function of zooplankton repartition (Ref. 2163). Spawns in gravel, near shore, in shallow water, in December (Ref. 59043). Likely to benefit from environmental regulations in France passed on 8/12/88 (Ref. 2163).
Spawning takes place at night.
Wheeler, A., 1992. A list of the common and scientific names of fishes of the British Isles. J. Fish Biol. 41(suppl.A):1-37. (Ref. 5204)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 5.8 - 12.5, mean 9.5 °C (based on 528 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00447 (0.00378 - 0.00528), b=3.20 (3.16 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.3-0.7; tmax=8; Fecundity=3,800 - 169,800).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): High to very high vulnerability (72 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 21.1 [11.5, 46.0] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.245 [0.161, 0.383] mg/100g ; Protein = 18 [17, 19] % ; Omega3 = 1.66 [0.67, 4.60] g/100g ; Selenium = 25.4 [12.0, 66.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 5.5 [1.9, 15.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.543 [0.413, 0.702] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.