Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Syngnathiformes
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathidae
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathinae
Etymology: Hippocampus: Greek, ippos = horse + Greek,kampe = curvature (Ref. 45335). More on author: Bleeker.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; non-migratory; depth range 1 - 46 m (Ref. 4281), usually 1 - 25 m (Ref. 30915). Temperate; 0°C - ; 20°S - 35°S, 145°E - 160°E
Southwest Pacific: Solomon Islands and Australia. Records from southern Mozambique and Natal, South Africa are misidentifications of Hippocampus camelopardalis. International trade is monitored through a licensing system (CITES II, since 5.15.04) and a minimum size of 10 cm applies.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 8.3, range 8 - ? cm
Max length : 13.0 cm OT male/unsexed; (Ref. 30915); common length : 8.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4281); max. reported age: 5 years (Ref. 93066)
Morphology | Morphometrics
In shallow, weedy inshore areas and Zostera seagrass beds; also on sponges. Also under jetties on holdfasts of kelp, and on other man-made structures such as shark nets. Diurnal and site faithful (Ref. 30915). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). The male carries the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail (Ref. 205).
Gestation period 21-22 days depending on temperature (Ref. 30915). Monogamous and faithful to pair in the wild (Ref. 30915). Monogamous mating is observed as both obligate and genetic (Ref. 52884). Male carries the eggs in a brood pouch (Ref. 205).
Lourie, S.A., A.C.J. Vincent and H.J. Hall, 1999. Seahorses: an identification guide to the world's species and their conservation. Project Seahorse, London. 214 p. (Ref. 30915)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 21.7 - 27.1, mean 25.4 °C (based on 146 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00447 (0.00176 - 0.01132), b=3.00 (2.78 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming annual Fec<1000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (11 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 168 [81, 352] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.58 [0.33, 1.00] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.2 [17.0, 19.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.573 [0.307, 1.105] g/100g ; Selenium = 19.8 [8.3, 48.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 7.52 [2.12, 26.29] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.865 [0.574, 1.311] mg/100g (wet weight);