Teleostei (teleosts) > Syngnathiformes
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathidae
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathinae
Etymology: Hippocampus: Greek, ippos = horse + Greek,kampe = curvature (Ref. 45335).
Junior synonyms Hippocampus dahli Ogilby, 1908 (more studies needed) and H. planifrons Peters, 1877 are considered valid species according to Lourie et al., 2016 (Ref. 115213).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 0 - 100 m (Ref. 52034), usually ? - 20 m (Ref. 30915). Tropical; 42°N - 42°S, 65°E - 132°W
Indo-West Pacific: India, Cambodia, China (Hong Kong, Taiwan), Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam.
International trade is monitored through a licensing system (CITES II, since 5.15.04) and a minimum size of 10 cm applies.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 14.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 22.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635)
Inhabits gravel or sand bottoms around shallow reefs (Ref. 559); muddy estuaries and near mangroves, tolerating brackish waters (Ref. 48635). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). The male carries the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail (Ref. 205).
Male carries the eggs in a brood pouch (Ref. 205).
Lourie, S. A., R.A. Pollom and S.J. Foster, 2016. A global revision of the seahorses Hippocampus Rafinesque 1810 (Actinopterygii: Syngnathiformes): taxonomy and biogeography with recommendations for further research. Zootaxa 4146(1):1-66. (Ref. 115213)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 24.2 - 29.1, mean 28.3 °C (based on 622 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00447 (0.00175 - 0.01142), b=3.00 (2.78 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.50 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 2.2 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (tm=0.5-1).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (18 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 85.9 [49.5, 172.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.776 [0.449, 1.459] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.2 [17.0, 19.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.131 [0.076, 0.242] g/100g ; Selenium = 45.8 [23.7, 101.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 65.2 [22.2, 185.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.35 [0.92, 1.94] mg/100g (wet weight);