Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 530 - 1335 m (Ref. 35839). Deep-water; 31°N - 33°S, 130°E - 64°W
Western Pacific: Australia and New Zealand; also Japan (Ref. 559). Eastern Pacific: southern part of the California Current region, well seaward of the continental shelf (Ref. 35839). Western Atlantic: Off Bermuda (Ref. 37473).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 12.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 559)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Mesopelagic and bathypelagic species. Oviparous, with planktonic eggs and larvae (Ref. 35839). Also Ref. 58302.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 3.3 - 4.6, mean 3.8 °C (based on 212 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00977 (0.00407 - 0.02346), b=3.06 (2.85 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).