Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal. Temperate
Northwest Pacific: Japan and the Ryukyu Islands to the East China Sea.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12951)
Found on sand and rock bottoms (Ref. 12951, 11230). Ovoviviparous, with up to 4 in a litter (Ref. 12951).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Male grasps pectoral fin of female then mounts on rear margin of female's dorsum during copulation. Copulation reported to last up to 14 minutes.
Mould, B., 1994. A world list of rays. The scientific nomenclature and distribution of the recent Batoidea (Batoidea, Elasmobranchii, Chondrichthyes). University of Nottingham, [UK]. 82 p. (Ref. 8630)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion