Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Soleidae
Etymology: Soleichthys: Latin, solea = sandal (shoe) + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335). More on author: Bleeker.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range - 10 m (Ref. 90102), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 32°N - 32°S
Eastern Indian Ocean and Western Pacific: India to Samoa, north to southern Japan, south to New South Wales, Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 18.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48637)
Occurs in shallow protected sandy areas of lagoon and seaward reefs. Buries itself beneath the sand, exposing only its eye and tubular nostril. Moves extremely fast when disturbed and is difficult to detect when it resettles. Apparently more active at night (Ref. 1602, 48637).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.1 - 29.3, mean 28.6 °C (based on 2510 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00977 (0.00466 - 0.02049), b=3.08 (2.90 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 77 [37, 163] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.617 [0.340, 1.175] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.1 [17.4, 20.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.0889 [, ] g/100g ; Selenium = 26.4 [12.7, 56.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 76.2 [19.5, 285.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.25 [0.73, 2.00] mg/100g (wet weight);