Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 220 - 1100 m (Ref. 114953), usually - m (Ref. ). Temperate; 0°C - ; 42°N - 21°N, 119°E - 146°E (Ref. 114953)
Northwest Pacific: Japan and Taiwan.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 69.3 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 94813)
Inhabits shelf edges to about 1000 m (Ref. 41299). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Maturity size of males at ca. 68 cm TL; birth size at ca. 20 cm TL (Ref. 114953). Reported to be infrequently captured as by-catch, but of no commercial importance (Ref. 94813).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).
Mould, B., 1994. A world list of rays. The scientific nomenclature and distribution of the recent Batoidea (Batoidea, Elasmobranchii, Chondrichthyes). University of Nottingham, [UK]. 82 p. (Ref. 8630)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01905 (0.00909 - 0.03994), b=2.89 (2.70 - 3.08), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (66 of 100) .