Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 10 - 100 m (Ref. 120290). Subtropical; 44°N - 4°N, 19°W - 36°E
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 8.5  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 22.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 120290); common length : 12.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397)
(total): 0. Upper eye less than its own diameter from dorsal profile of head. Anterior nostril on blind side not enlarged. Dorsal fin beginning before eyes, with 50-58 fin rays. Pectoral fin on eyed side with 5-6 unbranched fin rays., absent on blind side. Anal fin rays 40-45. Caudal fin separate from last dorsal and anal fin rays. Eyed side greyish or reddish brown.
Demersal, neritic over soft bottoms; usually between 10 and 100 m depth. Feeds on benthic organisms, A bycatch species, caught occasionally to rarely with trawls (Ref. 120290).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Bariche, M., 2012. Field identification guide to the living marine resources of the Eastern and Southern Mediterranean. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. Rome, FAO. 2012. 610 pp. (Ref. 120290)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 13.3 - 19.4, mean 15.7 °C (based on 184 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00977 (0.00460 - 0.02076), b=3.06 (2.89 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.38).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 150 [54, 332] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.11 [0.46, 2.31] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.2 [16.5, 20.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.186 [0.094, 0.344] g/100g ; Selenium = 24.4 [11.9, 54.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 11.9 [3.1, 43.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.798 [0.507, 1.201] mg/100g (wet weight);