Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Carangiformes
() > Carangidae
(Jacks and pompanos) > Scomberoidinae
Etymology: Scomberoides: Greek, skombros = tunny or mackerel, 1623 + Greek, oides = similar to (Ref. 45335). More on author: Lacepède.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range ? - 50 m (Ref. 86942). Tropical; 35°N - 42°S, 25°E - 179°E
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 63.5  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 120 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3287); common length : 90.0 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5288); max. published weight: 16.0 kg (Ref. 40637)
Adults inhabit coastal waters, frequently near reefs and offshore islands (Ref. 30573, 48635). Occasionally found in estuaries. Usually in small groups (Ref. 9710, 48635). Feed on fishes, cephalopods, small invertebrates and, other pelagic prey (Ref. 5213, 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.2 - 29.1, mean 28.1 °C (based on 1430 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00744 - 0.01691), b=2.92 (2.80 - 3.04), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.4 ±0.45 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 8.1 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tm=4-5 (F); K=0.14-0.16; Tmax=11; Fec >10,000).
Prior r = 0.28, 95% CL = 0.16 - 0.49, Based on 3 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (64 of 100) .