Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Carangiformes
(Jacks) > Carangidae
(Jacks and pompanos) > Caranginae
Etymology: Caranx: French, carangue, the name of a Caribbean fish; 1836 (Ref. 45335). More on author: Agassiz.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; reef-associated; oceano-estuarine (Ref. 4233); depth range 0 - 140 m (Ref. 36484), usually 0 - 20 m (Ref. 40849). Subtropical; 41°N - 23°S, 98°W - 14°E
Western Atlantic: New Jersey (USA), Bermuda, and northern Gulf of Mexico to São Paulo, Brazil (Ref. 57756). Eastern Atlantic: St. Paul's Rocks (Ref. 13121), Ascension Island, and two confirmed records from the Gulf of Guinea (Ref. 7097).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 37.0, range 34 - ? cm
Max length : 101 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); common length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); max. published weight: 13.4 kg (Ref. 40637)
(total): 8 - 9;
soft rays: 16 - 17. Diagnosis: chest fully scaled (Ref. 81654). No spots on pectoral fins, spot posteriorly on gill cover small or absent; scutes tend to be dusky or blackish; caudal fin yellow; young with broad blackish bars on body (Ref. 13442).
A pelagic (Ref. 26340) schooling species usually found in offshore reefs (Ref. 9710). Juveniles are encountered along shores of sandy beaches, also over muddy bottoms (Ref. 9626). May penetrate into brackish water and ascend rivers. Adults feed on fishes, shrimps, and other invertebrates (Ref. 3277). Often approach divers (Ref. 9710). Eggs are pelagic (Ref. 4233).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 31172)
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.4 - 28, mean 26.5 °C (based on 642 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01738 (0.01124 - 0.02686), b=2.92 (2.80 - 3.04), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Prior r = 0.28, 95% CL = 0.16 - 0.48, Based on 2 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (59 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 11.1 [4.7, 28.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.54 [0.26, 1.21] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.5 [17.3, 21.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.421 [0.184, 1.013] g/100g ; Selenium = 21.7 [7.7, 64.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 64.9 [15.4, 263.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.496 [0.289, 0.898] mg/100g (wet weight);