Teleostei (teleosts) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Lethrinidae
(Emperors or scavengers) > Monotaxinae
Etymology: Gnathodentex: Greek, gnathos = jaw + latin, dens, dentis = teeth (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Lacepède.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 0 - 30 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical; 30°N - 30°S, 31°E - 134°W
Indo-Pacific: East Africa to the Tuamoto Islands (excluding the Hawaiian Islands), north to Japan, south to Australia. Recently reported from Norfolk Island (Ref. 8880).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 42.3 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 125599); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295); max. published weight: 2.1 kg (Ref. 125599)
Inhabits subtidal reef flats, lagoons, and seaward reefs (Ref. 9710). May be solitary or in groups (Ref. 90102). Sometimes forms aggregations of about a hundred or more individuals. Feeds at night on benthic invertebrates like crabs and gastropods, occasionally on small fish. Usually marketed fresh. Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 128797.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen, 1989. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 4690)
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 24.9 - 29.3, mean 28.4 °C (based on 3356 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01585 (0.00973 - 0.02580), b=3.01 (2.87 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.57 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 49.5 [23.9, 92.4] mg/100g; Iron = 0.562 [0.301, 0.922] mg/100g; Protein = 19.6 [17.6, 21.6] %; Omega3 = 0.132 [0.076, 0.196] g/100g; Selenium = 27.4 [16.5, 48.6] μg/100g; VitaminA = 82 [26, 239] μg/100g; Zinc = 1.22 [0.87, 1.70] mg/100g (wet weight);