Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Scombriformes
(Mackerels) > Tetragonuridae
Etymology: Tetragonurus: Greek, tetra = four + Greek, gonia = angle + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335); cuvieri: Named after G.C.L.D. Cuvier 1769-1832, a founder of modern ichthyology (Ref. 6885). More on author: Risso.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 1 - 800 m (Ref. 10823). Deep-water
Eastern Pacific: Aleutian Islands, Alaska to Baja California, Mexico; Chile (Ref. 9068). Western Pacific: Japan (Ref. 559), New Zealand and Australia (Ref. 6885). Western Indian Ocean: Natal, South Africa (Ref. 4415). Atlantic Ocean, including the Mediterranean (Ref. 4415).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 70.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4415)
Oceanic, usually near surface; possibly near bottom. Perhaps occurs in schools. Young usually among jellyfishes or inside large salps. Feeds on jellyfishes and salps (Ref. 2850), also other soft-bodied coelenterates, ctenophores, as well as plankton. There are conflicting reports that the flesh of this species is poisonous (Ref. 11149).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Haedrich, R.L., 1986. Tetragonuridae. p. 851. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4415)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 4690)
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 5.6 - 17.9, mean 10.1 °C (based on 809 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.35 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 11.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (66 of 100) .