Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-neritic; depth range 0 - 100 m (Ref. 27000), usually ? - 50 m (Ref. 6949). Subtropical; 48°N - 18°S, 31°W - 37°E
Eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay to Mossamedes, Angola, including the Mediterranean and Black Sea, Canary Islands, and Azores. Western Atlantic: Bermuda and Brazil.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 165 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397); common length : 60.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 11101); max. published weight: 3.6 kg (Ref. 40637)
Found in coastal and offshore waters (Ref. 2683). Feeds mostly on fish, less often on cephalopods and crustaceans (Ref. 11101).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
De Sylva, D.P., 1990. Sphyraenidae. p. 860-864. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 6949)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 14.3 - 21.9, mean 18.3 °C (based on 126 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00776 (0.00628 - 0.00960), b=2.92 (2.88 - 2.96), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.51 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K= 0.123; Tmax >8 yrs).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (49 of 100) .