Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-oceanic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 200 m (Ref. 6517). Subtropical; 60°N - 25°S, 180°W - 180°E
Atlantic, Indian and Pacific: in temperate and tropical waters (Ref. 47377). Western Atlantic: USA and eastern Gulf of Mexico (Ref. 7251). Eastern Atlantic: Bergen, Norway to Madeira and near the Azores, including western Mediterranean; west of Cape Point, South Africa (Ref. 6657). Western Pacific: Japan, Australia, and New Zealand (Ref. 5755). Eastern Pacific: Oregon, USA to Chile (Ref. 2850).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 200 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9314); common length : 152 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6517); max. published weight: 150.0 kg (Ref. 47377)
Oceanic and epipelagic; found near surface or in deep water (Ref. 10821). Apparently solitary (Ref. 9314). Feed mainly on jellyfishes, ctenophores, and other gelatinous planktonic animals (Ref. 2850, 6885). Spawning starts at the end of spring and during the summer (Ref. 9314). Juveniles unlike adults in that the median fins are longer and further forward, the mouth toothed and the body and fins black-spotted (Ref. 6517). Rarely found in markets (Ref. 9314).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Tyler, J.C., G.D. Johnson, I. Nakamura and B.B. Collette, 1989. Morphology of Luvarus imperialis (Luvaridae), with a phylogenetic analysis of the Acanthuridae (Pisces). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, No. 485. Smithsonian Inst. Press, Washington, D.C. 78 p. (Ref. 11017)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 10.1 - 28.2, mean 24.6 °C (based on 1668 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00514 - 0.02450), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.46 se; based on food items.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (77 of 100) .