Teleostei (teleosts) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sparidae
Etymology: Centracanthus: Greek, kentron = sting + Greek, akantha = thorn (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Rafinesque.
Placement in Sparidae from Centracanthidae from Santini et al. (2014:Ref. 95347). Suggestion already made in Garrido-Ramos et al. 1995; Hanel & Sturmbauer 2000; Summerer et al. 2001; Orrell et al. 2002; Orrell & Carpenter 2004; Chiba et al. 2009; Hanel & Tsigenopoulos 2011.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range 1 - 464 m (Ref. 56504). Subtropical; 46°N - 20°N, 32°W - 36°E
Eastern Atlantic: Portugal, Morocco (off south coast), Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands and the Mediterranean. Reported from Mauritania (Ref. 55783).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 34.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7193); common length : 12.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397)
Neritic. Found over rocks or gravelly bottoms (Ref. 7349). To depth of 200 m (Ref. 7349) and from 327-464 m in the eastern Ionian Sea (Ref. 56504). Breeding stock approach the coast in summer (Ref. 6518). Eggs are pelagic (Ref. 6518).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C., 1990. Centracanthidae. p. 768-772. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 7349)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 13.3 - 17.1, mean 14.9 °C (based on 168 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00794 (0.00530 - 0.01191), b=3.05 (2.93 - 3.17), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.2 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (24 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 61.9 [32.7, 115.8] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.876 [0.493, 1.527] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.9 [17.9, 19.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.457 [0.303, 0.686] g/100g ; Selenium = 35.4 [16.5, 66.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 21.9 [6.7, 69.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.83 [0.58, 1.20] mg/100g (wet weight);