Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-oceanic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243). Subtropical; 28°N - 10°N, 90°W - 60°W (Ref. 189)
Western Central Atlantic: Florida Keys, Cuba, Bahamas, Antilles, Los Roques Archipelago off Venezuela; from Yucatan, Mexico possibly to western Venezuela; not in Gulf of Mexico. If correctly identified, then it occurs in Sibun River, Belize.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 11.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); common length : 8.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)
soft rays: 21 - 26. Body somewhat compressed and slender. Snout less than eye diameter; maxilla long, tip pointed, reaching almost to gill opening; gill cover canals of walkeri-type. Anal fin moderately long, its origin below about midpoint of dorsal fin base. A silver stripe along flank, a little less than eye diameter (Ref. 189). Melanophores on underside of snout do not reach premaxillae, leaving an unpigmented area (Ref. 7251).
A schooling fish, apparently preferring clear oceanic waters.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Spawn in school (Ref. 205).
Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; bait: usually
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 18.1 - 27.4, mean 23.2 °C (based on 63 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00513 (0.00234 - 0.01125), b=3.14 (2.97 - 3.31), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).