Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic. Tropical; 19°N - 9°N, 90°W - 78°W (Ref. 189)
Western Central Atlantic: Belize south to Panama and northeastern Colombia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.9 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 124486); common length : 9.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)
soft rays: 18 - 22. Snout moderate, about 2/3 eye diameter; maxilla relatively long, tip bluntly rounded, reaching to and a little beyond front margin of pre-operculum; gill cover canals of panamensis type. Anal fin fairly long, its origin below about middle of dorsal fin base. A silver stripe along flank, less than eye diameter (Ref. 189). Upper surface of head and back with dusky punctuations: dark spots at base of anal, median dark line posterior to anal (Ref. 37032).
Found along beaches and in estuaries, lagoons or other brackish habitats, apparently able to tolerate a wide range of salinities, but perhaps not entering freshwater.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Spawn in school (Ref. 205).
Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00537 (0.00249 - 0.01157), b=3.13 (2.96 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).