Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; anadromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 188). Tropical; 31°N - 0°N, 46°E - 106°E (Ref. 188)
Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf to the Bay of Bengal and Andaman coast of Thailand to the Gulf of Thailand (Songkhla Lake).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 23.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 11441)
soft rays: 39 - 43. Body moderately slender, belly with 18 to 21 + 8 or 9, total usually 28 or 29 scutes. Eye large, lower jaw strongly projecting; shaft of maxilla with a distinct lobe or flange between hind tip of pre-maxilla and blade of maxilla. Dorsal fin origin near or before midpoint of body; anal origin a little behind dorsal fin base. Swim bladder without a posterior tube (or tubes).
Found inshore, presumably able to tolerate some lowering of salinity. Pelagic (Ref. 68964). More data needed.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 25.2 - 29.3, mean 28.3 °C (based on 482 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00891 (0.00399 - 0.01990), b=3.04 (2.86 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (13 of 100).