Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 188). Tropical; 14°N - 4°S, 92°W - 77°W (Ref. 188)
Eastern Central Pacific: El Salvador to the northern tip of Peru.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 33.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763); common length : 20.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9336)
soft rays: 46 - 50. Body moderately slender, belly with 23 to 25 + 11 to 14 scutes. Eye large, lower jaw projecting; gap between hind tip of premaxilla a ligament, not a toothed bone. Dorsal fin origin a little before midpoint of body; anal fin long, its origin below about last dorsal fin rays.
Occurs in coastal waters, entering estuaries, perhaps to spawn there (Ref. 9336). Feeds on planktonic crustaceans; larger individuals feed on shrimps (Ref. 9336). Flesh of low quality (Ref. 9336).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.3 - 28.5, mean 27.1 °C (based on 32 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00891 (0.00403 - 0.01972), b=3.04 (2.86 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.52 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (28 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 237 [128, 418] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.65 [0.99, 2.84] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.4 [16.9, 19.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.85 [0.39, 1.93] g/100g ; Selenium = 50.5 [23.6, 109.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 18.4 [6.3, 45.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.77 [1.23, 2.51] mg/100g (wet weight);