Teleostei (teleosts) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Dorosomatidae
(Gizzard shads and sardinellas)
Etymology: Nematalosa: Greek, nema, -atos = filament + Latin, alausa = a fish cited by Ausonius and Latin, halec = pickle, dealing with the Greek word hals = salt; it is also the old Saxon name for shad = "alli" ; 1591 (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; brackish; pelagic; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 3 m (Ref. 6390). Subtropical; 15°C - 25°C (Ref. 2060); 11°S - 37°S
Oceania and Asia: Rivers of Australia and southwestern Papua New Guinea (from Fortescue River near Dampier Archipelago in Western Australia, eastward in rivers through the Northern Territory and Queensland south to the Murray-Darling system; also the Finke River, affluent to Lake Eyre; Bensbach River (Ref. 6993) and Digoel River in New Guinea.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 18.3, range 13 - ? cm
Max length : 48.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6390)
soft rays: 17 - 26. Belly with 14 to 18 (usually 16 to 17) - 11 to 14 (usually 12 or 13), total 25 to 31 (usually 20 to 30) scutes. Anterior arm of pre-operculum with fleshy triangular area above, not covered by third infra-orbital bone (see N. come). Edge of lower jaw strongly flared outward. Pectoral axillary scale rudimentary or absent. Hind edge of scales not toothed. A dark spot behind gill opening.
Occur often far up rivers, but also in estuaries and in Lakes Alexandrina and Albert near mouth of a river (Ref. 188). Most commonly inhabit streams coursing through relatively dry eucalyptus-scrub or desert areas, preferring sluggish or quiet waters (Ref. 5259, 44894). Also found in saline lakes (slightly less salty than sea water). Tolerant of water temperatures between 9° and 38°C and pH 4.8-8.6. Although these fish have a wide tolerance of temperature and pH, they are susceptible to oxygen depletion and are usually the first to perish when ephemeral habitats begin to dry up. Common length is 15-20 cm (Ref. 44894). Frequently noted in large shoals that feed on benthic algae; also feed on insects and small crustaceans. Spawning may occur repeatedly in the north with a peak during the wet season; probably annual in the south (Ref. 5259, 44894).
In more northerly part of its range, spawning may take place several times over the year but is probably annual in southern localities.
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Fisheries: commercial; bait: usually
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00724 (0.00414 - 0.01268), b=2.97 (2.82 - 3.12), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.8 ±0.29 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 4.1 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=2; tmax=10; Fec=33,000).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100).