Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Bothidae
Etymology: Engyprosopon: Greek, eggys = nearly + Greek,prosopon = a face (Ref. 45335). More on author: Hubbs.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 30 - 240 m (Ref. 9824). Temperate
Indo-West Pacific: Saya de Malha Bank, Coral Sea, South China Sea, and southern Japan.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 16.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48637)
soft rays: 60 - 64. A pair of jet-black blotches present on the caudal fin. Differs from E. grandisquama and E. multisquama by having an extremely large number of gill rakers. Some dark bands running in front of interorbital region and both eyes.
Inhabits muddy substrates in shallow estuaries and still bays to about 30 meters depth. Active at night and usually burries itself in the sand during the day (Ref. 48637). Feeds on small benthic animals. Rarely caught by bottom trawls.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Hensley, D.A. and K. Amaoka, 2001. Bothidae. Lefteye flounders. p. 3799-3841. In K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 6. Bony fishes part 4 (Labridae to Latimeriidae), estuarine crocodiles. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9824)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 16 - 27.7, mean 23.7 °C (based on 402 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00912 (0.00407 - 0.02046), b=3.05 (2.86 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .