Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 75 - 1750 m (Ref. 58496). Deep-water; 81°N - 45°N, 61°W - 140°E
Arctic: Kara and Laptev seas. Atlantic: Faroe-Shetland Channel to the Norwegian Sea, Spitsbergen, Murmansk and throughout Barents Sea; one specimen from Skagerrak; Newfoundland and Labrador (Ref. 9926). Reported from Greenland (Ref. 9926) and Iceland (Ref. 12462).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 35388)
soft rays: 47 - 51;
Vertebrae: 59 - 63. Pores 2-6-7-2; post orbital pore absent, 2 suprabranchial pores, chin pores somewhat drawn together; teeth simple; lower lobe of pectoral fin longer by 1.3-2.4 times that in upper lobe; pocket-like skin fold in front of symphysis of pectoral present; anteanal distance 53%SL, pyriform disk; large gill slit reaching below the base of the lower lobe of the pectoral fin; coloration in pink present in living specimens and peritoneum without black pigmentation (Ref. 41470). Suction disc small, almost equal to diameter of the eye. One nostril on each side of the mouth (Ref. 35388).
On muddy bottoms (Ref. 4702). Maximum depth reported at 1750 m )Ref. 58426). Epibenthic (Ref. 58426). Feeds on benthic and pelagic crustaceans (Ref. 4702) and fishes (Ref. 58426). Female lays about 300 eggs with a diameter of 4.5 mm (Ref. 35388).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Nielsen, J.G. and E. Bertelsen, 1992. Fisk i grønlandske farvande. Atuakkiorfik, Nuuk. 65 s. (Ref. 9925)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 0.4 - 8.6, mean 3 °C (based on 878 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00427 (0.00195 - 0.00931), b=3.19 (3.01 - 3.37), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.58 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100) .