Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 135 - 400 m (Ref. 114953). Subtropical; 18°S - 24°S, 148°E - 154°E (Ref. 114953)
Western Pacific: off Queensland, eastern Australia.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 26 - 30 cm
Max length : 36.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6871)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Dorsal surface pinkish brown to greyish brown with irregular clusters of small, dark, white-edged spots. Ventral surface pale, occasionally with dark patches around mouth and central disc. Dorsal fins uniform pale brown. Disc quadrangular, broader than long. Snout short to moderate. Tail of medium length, depressed, slender; lateral skin folds well developed. Nuchal thorn small. Orbital thorns usually absent from mid-eye, usually less than 5 in mature specimens. Mature males with denticles along anterolateral margin.
Found on the outer continental shelf and upper slopes. Bottom-dweller which feeds on invertebrates, mainly on crustaceans such as shrimps and prawns (Ref. 114953) and bony fish (Ref. 9908). Oviparous (Ref. 50449). Eggs have horn-like projections on the shell (Ref. 205). Males reaches maturity at ca. 30 cm TL, females at ca. 32 cm TL (Ref. 114953).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous (Ref. 9908). Paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449).
Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens, 1994. Sharks and rays of Australia. CSIRO, Australia. 513 p. (Ref. 6871)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 19.7 - 20.5, mean 19.8 °C (based on 6 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00309 (0.00144 - 0.00663), b=3.22 (3.05 - 3.39), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.61 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100) .