Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; non-migratory; depth range 10 - 45 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical
Indo-West Pacific: South Africa to Persian Gulf, Sri Lanka, southern India, Gulf of Thailand, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Philippines, Celebes, Irian Barat, Arafura Sea, northern Queensland, and the Solomons.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635); common length : 10.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9790)
(total): 8 - 9;
soft rays: 12 - 13. Brownish in color, with 3-4 dark bands crossing back (Ref. 4315). A single small papillae on posterior half of upper surface of eye. Base of lower opercular spine concealed by scales. Anal fin rays 12-13, usually 13. Anterior 2-6 lateral line scales bearing a small spine. Iris lappet with very short branches.
Inhabits shallow coastal areas and appears to be taken over sandy bottom with aquatic vegetation. Taken by trawling to a depth of 43 m but usually taken with dip nets at 20 m or less. Frequently taken near coral rubble and rock (Ref. 9790).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Knapp, L.W., 1999. Platycephalidae. Flatheads. p. 2385-2421. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Volume 4. Bony fishes part 2 (Mugilidae to Carangidae). FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9790)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 24.5 - 29.1, mean 28 °C (based on 766 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00537 (0.00253 - 0.01141), b=3.05 (2.86 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).