Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 0 - 850 m (Ref. 9563). Deep-water
Southern Ocean: in temperate waters. Indian Ocean: Tasmania, Australia and off Natal, South Africa. Southwest Pacific: New Zealand.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 67.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9563)
Greyish to dark brown in color; young with spots on flanks (Ref. 4410).
Subadults are found near the surface over deep water; juveniles occur inshore from surface waters down to at least 50 m (Ref. 9563). Minimum depth from Ref. 58018. Habitat change gradually occur during the growth of the fish, from epipelagic to benthic (mesobenthopelagic), including talassobenthic. Of no commercial value (Ref. 54802).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
May, J.L. and J.G.H. Maxwell, 1986. Trawl fish from temperate waters of Australia. CSIRO Division of Fisheries Research, Tasmania. 492 p. (Ref. 9563)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 8.6 - 14.3, mean 11.7 °C (based on 81 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00891 (0.00397 - 0.01999), b=3.10 (2.90 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .