Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Soleidae
Etymology: Synaptura: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, aptein = to join + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335). More on author: Lacepède.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea to the Persian Gulf, west coast of India and Sri Lanka; also off Mauritius and Seychelles. Also east coast of India to the Malay Archipelago.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 32.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573)
Inhabits mainly sand and mud bottoms in coastal waters. Feeds mainly on benthic invertebrates, especially small crustaceans. Marketed fresh, frozen, and dried-salted.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
De Bruin, G.H.P., B.C. Russell and A. Bogusch, 1995. FAO species identification field guide for fishery purposes. The marine fishery resources of Sri Lanka. Rome, FAO. 400 p. (Ref. 11298)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.2 - 28.8, mean 28.1 °C (based on 322 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00553 - 0.01649), b=3.07 (2.92 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.44 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (35 of 100) .