Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Paralichthyidae
Etymology: Paralichthys: Greek, para = the side of + Greek, ichthys = fish + Greek, suffix, oides = similar to (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 0 - 40 m (Ref. 26375). Subtropical; 12°S - 54°S
Southwest Atlantic: Brazil. Does not occur in Argentina nor in Uruguay (Ref. 43588).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26375); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6077); max. published weight: 12.0 kg (Ref. 26375)
soft rays: 52 - 67. Pectoral fins small, about two times head on ocular side, 2.7-3.0 time head on blind side. Pelvic fins about equal in size and shape on both sides. Caudal fin double truncate (Ref. 27363).
Inhabits coastal areas, in bays and estuaries (Ref. 36453). Found over sandy or muddy substrate. Apparently, reproduction occurs during summer in small groups of 3-15 individuals. Adults are solitary. This species is very much appreciated for its taste and high commercial value.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205).
Cervigón, F. and W. Fischer, 1979. INFOPESCA. Catálogo de especies marinas de interes economico actual o potencial para América Latina. Parte 1. Atlántico centro y suroccidental. FAO/UNDP, SIC/79/1. 372 p. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 6077)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 11.7 - 26.1, mean 16.1 °C (based on 150 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00692 (0.00403 - 0.01189), b=3.14 (2.99 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.4 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (60 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 61.2 [25.9, 142.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.18 [0.62, 2.37] mg/100g ; Protein = 15.8 [13.2, 18.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.505 [0.211, 1.155] g/100g ; Selenium = 34.9 [13.0, 86.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 16.1 [3.3, 78.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.564 [0.340, 0.968] mg/100g (wet weight);