Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 15 - 300 m (Ref. 57919), usually 100 - 300 m (Ref. 57919). Tropical; 21°S - 44°S, 65°W - 40°W
Southwest Atlantic: Rio de Janeiro to the coast of Santa Catarina, Brazil (Ref. 27569); range extended to Argentina. Citations off Uruguay are probably misidentifications of Pseudopercis semifasciata (Ref. 57919).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 120 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 27569); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6077); max. published weight: 20.2 kg (Ref. 40637)
Inhabits deeper waters of the continental shelf (Ref. 27569). Also sandy, rubble and rocky bottoms and shallow rocky reef (Ref. 57919).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Rosa, I.L. and R.S. Rosa, 1997. Systematic revision of the South American species of Pinguipedidae (Teleostei, Trachinoidei). Revta Bras. Zool. 14(4):845-865. (Ref. 27569)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 14.5 - 19.8, mean 17.4 °C (based on 36 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00706 - 0.01291), b=3.01 (2.93 - 3.09), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (72 of 100).