Teleostei (teleosts) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Scaridae
(Parrotfishes) > Sparisomatinae
Etymology: Nicholsina: After J.T. Nichols, 1920-1941, curator in ichthyology, department of Fishes, American Museum of Nat. History; he has wrote articles in the Encyclopaedia Britannica .
More on authors: Evermann & Radcliffe.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 11 m (Ref. 5227). Tropical; 32°N - 1°S
Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California to Ecuador and northern Peru. Also from the Galapagos Islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 32.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763)
Abundant in shallow coastal areas, especially in rocky coasts with macroalgae. May be solitary or swim in loose schools (Ref. 5227). Feeds by scraping or breaking off chunks of the reef and digest the algae that grows within, or they feed directly on algae (Ref. 28023).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Bellwood, D.R., 1995. Scaridae. Loros, pocochos. p. 1419-1426. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9338)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 22.3 - 29.1, mean 26.2 °C (based on 211 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00540 - 0.02331), b=3.09 (2.92 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.00 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (22 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 62.1 [37.1, 120.0] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.764 [0.411, 1.300] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.6 [16.6, 20.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.0961 [, ] g/100g ; Selenium = 25.9 [14.9, 49.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 52.8 [15.9, 176.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.83 [1.25, 2.91] mg/100g (wet weight);