Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 35 - 600 m (Ref. 82251), usually 251 - 300 m (Ref. 82251). Subtropical; 24°N - 47°S, 107°W - 74°W
Eastern Pacific: distribution is not precisely known; but may extend from Mazatlán, Mexico to Chile.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9330)
soft rays: 52 - 58. Pectoral fins rather small, about 2 times in head in ocular side and about 2.5 times in head on blind side. Pelvic fin on ocular side slightly larger than on blind side. Caudal fin round. Body brownish, with obscure darker spots on body and fins (Ref. 27363).
This species inhabits soft bottoms (Ref. 9330); from the littoral zone (35 m, shallowest depth reported in Ref. 9330) up to 600 m (Yañez and Barbieri, 1974.in Ref. 82251:833). Common depth range was taken from a study done in northern Chile. Stomach contents include mainly the squat lobsters (Pleuroncodes monodon and Cervimunida johni) and the deep-sea shrimp (Heterocarpus reedi) (Ref. 82251). Exploited on a local level with trawl nets and is utilized fresh or as fishmeal.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205).
Hensley, D.A., 1995. Paralichthyidae. Lenguados. p. 1349-1380. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9330)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 10.9 - 12, mean 11.4 °C (based on 7 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00794 (0.00377 - 0.01673), b=3.15 (2.97 - 3.33), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 461 [145, 1,393] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.46 [0.59, 3.70] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.2 [13.8, 18.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.409 [0.142, 1.201] g/100g ; Selenium = 14.4 [4.0, 51.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 114 [18, 780] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.81 [0.93, 3.31] mg/100g (wet weight);