Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 18 - 60 m (Ref. 5227). Tropical; 24°N - 2°S
Eastern Pacific: Mexico to Peru (Ref. 35581) and the Galapagos Islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 120 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 57763); common length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 57763)
Inhabits deep, rocky, boulder strewn areas and walls. Lurks in holes, crevices and dark recesses. Constantly opens and closes its mouth, an action required for respiration, not a threat (Ref. 5227).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
McCosker, J.E. and R.H. Rosenblatt, 1995. Muraenidae. Morenas. p. 1303-1315. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9324)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 20.2 - 26.6, mean 25.7 °C (based on 17 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00050 (0.00024 - 0.00103), b=3.26 (3.10 - 3.42), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (72 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 24.3 [13.0, 41.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.406 [0.241, 0.895] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.8 [16.5, 21.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.1 [0.0, 0.3] g/100g ; Selenium = 50.3 [27.4, 97.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 52.8 [15.5, 168.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.865 [0.612, 1.197] mg/100g (wet weight);