Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sciaenidae
(Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Otolithes: Greek, ous, oto = ear + Greek, lithos = stone (Ref. 45335). More on author: Trewavas.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic. Tropical
Western Indian Ocean: coasts of India and Pakistan.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 24.5  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 39.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55968); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3490)
Inhabits inshore and coastal waters (Ref. 3490). Carnivorous feeder. Feeds on Acetes spp., penaeid prawns, deep-sea prawns, fishes, stomatopods, mollusks, isopods, copepods and fish larvae (Ref. 53464).
Lal Mohan, R.S., 1984. Sciaenidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51). Vol. 4. FAO, Rome. pag. var. (Ref. 3490)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.9 - 28.4, mean 27 °C (based on 96 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00832 (0.00752 - 0.00919), b=3.06 (3.03 - 3.09), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.62 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 2.1 (1.8 - 2.2) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 10 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.5; Fec=112,523).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100) .