Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 7 - 200 m (Ref. 11298). Tropical
Indo-Pacific: East Africa, throughout the Indian Ocean to the Indo-Australian Archipelago and New Caledonia, north to southern Japan.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 11298); common length : 10.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3322)
soft rays: 61 - 65;
Vertebrae: 24. This species is distinguished by the following characters: body deeply ovoid; caudal fin with a pair of black blotches, arranged between the third and fourth fin rays from upper- and lowermost rays in the fin; the ocular-side pectoral fin is not elongate, and no sexual differences in its length; gill rakers are very short, not serrate (Ref. 126076).
Description. D 81-87; A 61-65; pectoral-fin rays on ocular-side 10-12, blind-side 8-10; caudal-fin rays 3 + 11 + 3; pelvic-fin rays on ocular-side 6, blind-side 6; lateral line scales 40-45; gill rakers 0 + 5-7; vertebrae 10 + 14 (Ref. 126076).
Found on sandy and muddy areas of the continental shelf. Feeds on crustaceans, polychaetes, and other benthic animals (Ref. 9824). Marketed fresh and sometimes dried (Ref. 9824).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Amaoka, K., E. Mihara and J. Rivaton, 1993. Pisces, Pleuronectiformes: Flatfishes from the waters around New Caledonia. - A revision of the genus Engyprosopon. p. 377-426. In A. Crosnier (ed.) Résultats des Campagnes MUSORSTOM, Volume 22. Mém. Mus. natn. Hist. nat. (158):377-426. (Ref. 9558)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 21.2 - 28.3, mean 26.8 °C (based on 1099 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00933 (0.00541 - 0.01611), b=2.99 (2.84 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 82.3 [40.8, 158.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.65 [0.40, 1.11] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.3 [16.8, 19.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.102 [0.050, 0.194] g/100g ; Selenium = 25.5 [12.6, 53.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 82.3 [20.4, 303.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.37 [0.87, 2.06] mg/100g (wet weight);