Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes
(Skates and rays) > Rajidae
Etymology: Dipturus: Greek, di = two + Greek, pteryx = fin (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 15 - 1310 m (Ref. 26346). Deep-water; 33°S - 43°S, 166°E - 178°W (Ref. 114953)
Southwest Pacific: endemic to New Zealand.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 112.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 240 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26346); common length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9258); max. reported age: 24 years (Ref. 47618)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Grey with scattered charcoal blotches dorsally, greyish-white ventrally (Ref. 26346).
Occurs in coastal waters, continental shelf and upper slope (Ref. 26346). Usually found in deeper waters to 200 m (Ref. 9258). Mainly feeds on benthic decapods and bony fishes (Ref. 114953). Oviparous (Ref. 50449). Eggs have horn-like projections on the shell (Ref. 205). Males reaches maturity at ca. 150 cm TL. This species is said to be long lived and slow growing (Ref. 114953).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Young hatch at about 20-23 cm (Ref. 26346).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 6.4 - 12.9, mean 8.2 °C (based on 173 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00240 (0.00141 - 0.00409), b=3.22 (3.07 - 3.37), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Generation time: 11.6 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (80 of 100).