Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Balistidae
Etymology: Sufflamen: Latin, sufflamen = clog (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 8 - 186 m (Ref. 9710), usually 18 - ? m (Ref. 9710). Tropical; 30°N - 32°S
Indo-Pacific: East Africa south to Natal, South Africa (Ref. 4420) and east to the Hawaiian, Marquesas and Tuamoto islands, north to southern Japan, south to Lord Howe Island.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 38.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710); common length : 26.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450)
Inhabit coastal rocky reefs, often silty habitats and in lagoons on open sand (Ref. 48637). Solitary (Ref. 90102). Found over sand and rubble patches of seaward reefs (Ref. 205). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Feed on echinoids, fishes, mollusks, tunicates, crustaceans, algae, polychaete worms, foraminiferans and detritus. Oviparous (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205). Females are territorial, solely tending and guarding the eggs (Ref. 116451). Males exhibit polygyny (Ref. 116451).
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.4 - 28.9, mean 27.5 °C (based on 2060 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02570 (0.01600 - 0.04129), b=2.94 (2.80 - 3.08), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 50.2 [20.0, 104.2] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.559 [0.337, 1.104] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.8 [16.8, 20.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.13 [0.07, 0.26] g/100g ; Selenium = 33.5 [17.3, 72.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 58.9 [18.0, 188.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.02 [0.67, 1.57] mg/100g (wet weight);