Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 20 - 50 m (Ref. 28016). Tropical
Western Indian Ocean: Mozambique and Persian Gulf to Sri Lanka.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 39.3  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 49.2 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 121653); 51.0 cm TL (female); common length : 23.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3290); max. published weight: 1.3 kg (Ref. 121653); max. published weight: 1.3 kg
Found in coastal waters down to a depth of about 50 m (Ref. 5213). Enters brackish waters (Ref. 4833). Feeds mainly on invertebrates and small fishes. Caught mainly with bagnets, dipnets, bamboo stake traps and on hook and line.
Jayaram, K.C., 1984. Ariidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean fishing area 51. Vol. 1. FAO, Rome. pag. var. (Ref. 3290)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Traumatogenic (Ref. 58010)
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 25 - 29, mean 27.6 °C (based on 109 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00708 (0.00594 - 0.00844), b=3.04 (2.99 - 3.09), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.61 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 5.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.2; Fec=538).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100).