Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes
(Stingrays) > Myliobatidae
(Eagle and manta rays)
Etymology: Myliobatis: Greek, mylo = mill + Greek, + Greek, batis,-idos = a ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335). More on author: Bleeker.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range - 220 m (Ref. 9862), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Northwest Pacific: Japan, Korea, Okinawa Trough, China, and South China Sea marginal to the Western Central Pacific (where status is uncertain); Philippines (probably conspecific with Japanese forms (Ref. 47737); Indonesia (Ref. 5978).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 65 - ? cm
Max length : 150 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9862)
A common inshore and offshore species, demersal in intertidal habitats to depths of at east 220 m (Ref.58048). Found from the intertidal to the uppermost continental slope (Ref. 9862, 11230). A carnivore feeding on benthic animals. Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Caught occasionally by inshore, demersal longline fisheries. Utilized for its meat and cartilage (Ref.58048).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).
Masuda, H. and G.R. Allen, 1993. Meeresfische der Welt - Groß-Indopazifische Region. Tetra Verlag, Herrenteich, Melle. 528 p. (Ref. 9137)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 12.8 - 24.7, mean 20.3 °C (based on 176 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5002 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00121 - 0.01252), b=3.08 (2.83 - 3.33), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (61 of 100) .