Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 22 - 100 m (Ref. 58489), usually - m (Ref. ). Temperate; 0°C -
Southwest Pacific: New Zealand.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 43.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 93092); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9258)
Inhabits shallow waters, generally at depth of less than 50 m, and to around 100 m (Ref. 9258). to . Juveniles gather in sheltered inshore waters, such as estuarine areas, shallow mudflats and sandflats, where they remain for up to two years (Ref. 9072).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Paulin, C., A. Stewart, C. Roberts and P. McMillan, 1989. New Zealand fish: a complete guide. National Museum of New Zealand Miscellaneous Series No. 19. 279 p. (Ref. 5755)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 10 - 18.2, mean 14.4 °C (based on 39 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01479 (0.00662 - 0.03303), b=2.92 (2.71 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.3 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Generation time: 4.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tmax=6; k=0.23-0.78).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (22 of 100) .