Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; depth range 20 - 50 m (Ref. 28016). Tropical
Indo-west Pacific: Mozambique and Madagascar to Sri Lanka, the east coast of India, Bangladesh, Myanmar to Sumatra (Ref. 56505).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 85.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 114032); max. published weight: 1.4 kg (Ref. 4883)
soft rays: 14 - 16. It has a prominent lateral ethmoid that forms a "shelf" between the eye and the nostrils (Ref. 56505), two pairs of vomerine toothpletes (Ref. 56505), and a very short adipose-fin base (Ref. 56505). Body dark brown, lower surfaces completely covered with fine brown pigment specks (Ref. 3976).
Found along the coast (Ref. 5213). Enters the lower parts of rivers of the east coast of Africa (Ref. 3876). Feeds on invertebrates and small fishes. Marketed fresh and dried-salted (Ref. 3290). Males incubate eggs in its mouth(Ref. 68964). Air bladder utilized for isinglass.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Jayaram, K.C., 1984. Ariidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean fishing area 51. Vol. 1. FAO, Rome. pag. var. (Ref. 3290)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Traumatogenic (Ref. 58010)
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 25.1 - 28.7, mean 27.4 °C (based on 76 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00545 - 0.01393), b=3.02 (2.88 - 3.16), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.62 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 1.9 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tmax=7; k=0.16-0.7).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100).