Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range ? - 60 m (Ref. 114953). Tropical; 25°N - 0°N, 61°E - 105°E (Ref. 114953)
Northern Indian Ocean: Pakistan to Thailand, with eastern limits unclear (Ref. 114953). South African records refer to Rhinobatos blochii and Rhinobatos leucospilus (Compagno pers. comm.).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - 48 cm
Max length : 93.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9909)
Morphology | Morphometrics
This species is distinguished by the following: colour uniform greyish to brownish body and shovel-shaped disc; short snout broadly triangular, broad oblique nostrils with an oval anterior opening; disc flattened centrally, its length ca 1.2 times its width, anterior margin largely convex, outer corner broadly rounded to abruptly angular; snout relatively obtuse, ca. 80° angle, tip broadly rounded and not extended forward as a lobe, very small orbit its length ca 6.5 time preorbital length, 2.5-2.7 in interorbital space; rostral ridges are well separated, margin of cranium sharply demarcated before eyes; one small spiracular fold; nostrils much shorter than mouth, subequal to internasal width, ca. 50-52 nasal lamellae; anterior nasal flaps barely penetrating into internasal space, the interspace equal to 2.4-2.5 times length of posterior nasal aperture; rough skin covered with small denticles, enlarged slightly and more granular on dorsal surface than ventrally; along midline of the body in young are thorns in irregular row, irregular in shape, often obscure in adults; no obvious patch on each shoulder or greatly enlarged thorns in snout tip and around orbits; long tail, 1.4-1.6 times disc length; short dorsal fins, apices rounded, close together, interspace exceeding twice base length of first dorsal fin, well separated from pelvic fins (Ref. 114953).
Found inshore and offshore (Ref. 9909). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Biology little known (Ref. 9909); but males are known to be mature ca. 48 cm TL (Ref. 114953). Probably utilized where it occurs, but details lacking (Ref. 9909).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1999. Checklist of living elasmobranchs. p. 471-498. In W.C. Hamlett (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes. Johns Hopkins University Press, Maryland. (Ref. 35766)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00372 (0.00148 - 0.00933), b=3.08 (2.86 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (57 of 100).