Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 15 - 170 m. Temperate; 46°N - 10°N, 98°W - 60°W
Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia in Canada to central Florida in USA. Gulf of Mexico (Ref. 26938).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 38.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3822)
Occurs on sandy bottom. Feeds on shrimps, crabs, other crustaceans, squid, bivalves and small fishes. Produces loud, drumming sound by vibrating its swim bladder (Ref. 9988). Used both for food and fish meal; other uses include bait for lobster traps and flatfish, handlines, pet food and fertilizer. Utilized fresh and frozen; also used for caviar ; can be broiled and baked (Ref. 9988).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; bait: occasionally
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 6.4 - 24.7, mean 18.9 °C (based on 85 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 3.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (35 of 100) .