Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Tropical
Asia: Chao Phraya and Mekong basins, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, and Borneo (Ref. 27732). Reported from Myanmar (Ref. 7050), Salween and Maeklong rivers (Ref. 26336).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 67.8, range 61 - 74.9 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30857)
soft rays: 5;
Vertebrae: 39 - 41. Has a long more or less square, median lobe on the lower lip reaching an imaginary line between the corners of the mouth (in specimens > about 7 cm SL); upper lip rolled backwards and upwards and with a median lobe projecting upwards; no dark longitudinal stripe along the side in adults; fins blackish in large adults, yellow in juveniles, and usually 4+1/2 scales between the lateral line and the dorsal-fin origin (Ref. 27732); has 9 branched dorsal-fin rays (Ref. 12693); eyes visible in ventral view; body deep and compressed; isthmus with small distinct scales, about 16 scales between isthmus and origin of pelvic fin; gill rakers 20; supero-posterior margin of dorsal fin deeply concave; pelvic fin tip pointed, posterior margin obviously concave; tip of anal fin pointed, extending to the base of caudal fin (Ref. 13848). Also Ref. 35913.
Adults inhabit pools and runs over gravel and cobble in rivers flowing through undisturbed forests (Ref. 12693). Juveniles were most commonly collected in or near rapids (Ref. 27732). Found in small rivers and streams during the dry season. Move downstream at the onset of the rainy season, but generally avoid turbid waters. Mature individuals migrate upstream after two months and spawn in July near the mouths of small streams that the young subsequently ascend. Omnivorous, feeding on both animal and vegetable matter, at times consuming toxic fruits in flooded forests, making them temporarily inedible.
Kottelat, M., 2001. Fishes of Laos. WHT Publications Ltd., Colombo 5, Sri Lanka. 198 p. (Ref. 43281)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00432 - 0.02113), b=3.01 (2.83 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.00 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming tm>4; Fec=11,150).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (73 of 100).