Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; depth range ? - 135 m (Ref. 57178). Tropical; 1°S - 19°S
Western Pacific: northern Australia and central-southern New Guinea.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 44894)
Occurs in lakes, rivers, muddy coastal seas and estuaries (Ref. 5259). Inhabits fresh water in upper reaches of streams, also found in brackish estuaries and lower reaches of rivers (Ref. 44894). Feeds on fishes, prawns, insects, terrestrial fruits, aquatic plants, bottom detritus (Ref. 5259, 44894) and mollusks (Ref. 2847). Breeds between the late dry and early wet season (September to January) in coastal lagoons and flooded swamps. Males orally incubate the eggs until they hatch and guard the fry for about 4 weeks afterwards. A good angling and eating species (Ref. 44894).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Allen, G.R., 1989. Freshwater fishes of Australia. T.F.H. Publications, Inc., Neptune City, New Jersey. (Ref. 5259)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Traumatogenic (Ref. 58010)
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 26.8 - 28.8, mean 27.9 °C (based on 472 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00794 (0.00379 - 0.01665), b=3.07 (2.90 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (49 of 100).