Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range ? - 80 m (Ref. 5217). Subtropical; 38°N - 26°S, 99°W - 32°W
Western Atlantic: Bermuda, North Carolina (USA), and northern Gulf of Mexico to southeastern Brazil (Ref. 57756). Indo-Pacific (Ref. 26165).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3790); common length : 10.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3790)
More common in offshore areas, including floating seaweed and flotsam, and around islands. Juveniles are associated with floating seaweeds (Ref. 3790). Probably feeds on plants and small invertebrates (Ref. 3790). Generally considered as trash fish, rarely consumed (Ref. 3790).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Smith-Vaniz, W.F., B.B. Collette and B.E. Luckhurst, 1999. Fishes of Bermuda: history, zoogeography, annotated checklist, and identification keys. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists Special Publication No. 4. 424 p. (Ref. 35505)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30911)
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 22.7 - 28.5, mean 26.1 °C (based on 652 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01585 (0.00914 - 0.02749), b=2.92 (2.77 - 3.07), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.9 ±0.34 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 34.1 [13.7, 118.3] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.698 [0.316, 1.765] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.7 [16.4, 20.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.175 [0.079, 0.351] g/100g ; Selenium = 16.8 [7.0, 40.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 39.7 [9.5, 173.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.898 [0.546, 1.525] mg/100g (wet weight);